With age, there are multiple effects on the body. Aging affects the skeletal system, the digestive system, the urinary system, the reproductive system, the teeth, skin, and the eye and ears. The memory and thinking ability of the person also starts diminishing. However, as the skin is the outer covering of the body, the changes in the skin due to aging are most readily visible.
Several changes occur on the skin due to aging. With aging, epithelium, the outermost layer of the skin, becomes thinner. Further, the number of melanocytes reduces, and the size of the remaining melanocytes starts increasing. The skin of the aged person looks thin, translucent, and undergoes the process of elastosis. Further, as we age, there is an increased risk of injury due to the loss of some amount of protective layer from the skin. Also, the healing ability of the skin after an injury reduces considerably.
The changes in the skin structure due to aging may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsically, skin changes occur due to the reduced functional ability and physiological processes within the skin and the surrounding tissues. Intrinsic aging is also known as chronological aging as it is a normal degenerative process. The blood flow to the skin is reduced, and so is its glandular activity. Intrinsic damage to the skin is due to the formation of reactive oxygen species and the reduced ability of the body to neutralize these free radicals. It causes reduced production of collagen, mast cells, and fibroblasts. The junction between the dermis and epidermis becomes flat. Reduction in the collagen fibers result in the skin becoming pale and less elastic with fine wrinkles. Loss of facial volume and sagging of skin occurs.
The extrinsic factors that affect the skin and accelerate age-related skin degeneration include diet, trauma, smoking, exposure to solar radiation, and exposure to harmful chemicals. These factors increase the production of reactive oxygen species.
The lines developed on the skin are divided into two types:
Dynamic lines: These are dynamic. They come and go over the faces. The appearance and disappearance of these lines depend upon the expressions of our faces and the movement of the facial muscles.For example, the dynamic lines occur when we smile and disappear when there is no smile.
Static lines: With age, the skin loses its elasticity. Thus, the lines that are formed due to the expression or functioning of facial muscles do not disappear and remain static.
There are several types of lines that may occur with age. Some of them are:
There are several ways to delay the formation of wrinkles. Some of them are:
Protect the skin: You should regularly assess your skin. Further, protect yourself from exposure to the sun and harmful ultraviolet radiation. Always wear the hat and use the cream with appropriate SPF while going out in the sun. Further, various nutritional supplements, especially antioxidants, help in neutralizing the free radicals.
Repair the skin: Several products are available that helps you in repairing damage on the skin. Drink water and remain hydrated. Further, wash your face with high-quality face wash best suited according to your skin type to remove dirt and pollution that may clog the pores. Supplements ( as prescribed by your dermatologist ) containing vitamin C, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q-10 may help in repairing the damaged skin.
Choose the products according to skin condition: It is necessary to choose high-quality products. The poor quality and substandard products do more harm than good. Further, always choose the cosmetic products according to the skin type. Add the product containing hyaluronic acid to your kit when the facial skin starts getting dry. It may be the first sign of aging.
Maintain a healthy diet: Always take a healthy diet. Incorporate fresh fruits and vegetables into your diet. Eat omega-3 fatty acid-rich food and consume enough vitamin E and vitamin C in the diet. Soy protein, sweet potato, avocados, and broccoli are some of the food items that may have a positive effect on skin health.
Exercise: Exercise improves blood flow ad keeps away stress. Improved blood flow to the skin results in an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the skin and removes the toxins. However, you must avoid harmful sun radiations while performing the exercise.
Stop habits that accelerate wrinkle formation: Now is the best time to stop those habits that accelerate wrinkle formation. You should avoid smoke, limit the consumption of alcohol, avoid dehydration, and reduce stress to keep your skin healthy.
Signs of aging can be reversed up to a great extent with certain cosmetic treatments like dermal fillers, thread lift, botox etc which can be planned by your doctor according to your requirement.